Activity Preview


AJP CME: June 2020 - Contribution of Intellectual Disability–Related Genes to ADHD Risk and to Locomotor Activity in Drosophila

Activity Type:

  • Journal CME

Release Date: 6/1/2020

Expiration Date: 5/31/2022

  • AMA PRA Category 1: 1
  • Participation: 1



Objective: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, highly heritable neuropsychiatric disorder. ADHD often co-occurs with intellectual disability, and shared overlapping genetics have been suggested. The aim of this study was to identify novel ADHD genes by investigating whether genes carrying rare mutations linked to intellectual disability contribute to ADHD risk through common genetic variants. Validation and characterization of candidates were performed using Drosophila melanogaster.

Methods: Common genetic variants in a diagnostic gene panel of 396 autosomal intellectual disability genes were tested for association with ADHD risk through gene set and gene-wide analyses, using ADHD meta-analytic data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium for discovery (N=19,210) and ADHD data from the Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research for replication (N=37,076). The significant genes were functionally validated and characterized in Drosophila by assessing locomotor activity and sleep upon knockdown of those genes in brain circuits.


Don't have a subscription to AJPCME? Subscribe online or by phone at 1-800-368-5777.

If you have questions about AJPCME subscriptions, please contact

Educational Objective

The participant will describe the genetic architecture of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and discover how the modeling of ADHD genetic effects in an alternative animal model system can contribute to the identification of biological pathways involved in ADHD.

Target Audience

This program is designed for all psychiatrists in clinical practice, residents in Graduate Medical Education programs, medical students interested in psychiatry, and other physicians who wish to advance their current knowledge of clinical medicine.

Estimated Time to Complete

Duration: 1 hour

Begin Date: June 1, 2020

End Date: May 31, 2022

How to Earn Credit

In order to earn CME credit, subscribers should read through the material presented in the article. After reading the article, complete the quiz and submit your evaluation and study hours (up to 1 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™). A score of 60% or higher is required to receive credit.


The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education for physicians.

The APA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

Faculty and Planner Disclosures

Title: Contribution of Intellectual Disability–Related Genes to ADHD Risk and to Locomotor Activity in Drosophila

Authors: Marieke Klein, Ph.D., Euginia L. Singgih, B.Sc., Anne van Rens, M.Sc., Ditte Demontis, Ph.D., Anders D. Børglum, M.D., Ph.D., Nina Roth Mota, Ph.D., Anna Castells-Nobau, Ph.D., Lambertus A. Kiemeney, Ph.D., Han G. Brunner, M.D., Ph.D., Alejandro Arias-Vasquez, Ph.D., Annette Schenck, Ph.D., Monique van der Voet, Ph.D., Barbara Franke, Ph.D.

Affiliations: Department of Human Genetics (M.K., E.L.S., A.v.R., N.R.M., A.C.-N., H.G.B., A.A.-V., A.S., M.v.d.V., B.F.), Department of Psychiatry (N.R.M., A.A.-V., B.F.), and Department for Health Evidence (L.A.K.), Radboud University Medical Center and Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behavior, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; Department of Biomedicine and Center for Integrative Sequencing (iSEQ), Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark (D.D., A.D.B.); and Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research (iPSYCH), Denmark (D.D., A.D.B.).

Disclosures: Dr. Børglum has received funding from the Lundbeck Foundation. Dr. Franke has received educational speaking fees from Shire and Medice. The other authors report no financial relationships with commercial interests.

Discussion of unapproved or investigational use of products*: No.

*APA policy requires disclosure by CME authors of unapproved or investigational use of products discussed in CME programs. Off-label use of medications by individual physicians is permitted and common. Decisions about off-label use can be guided by scientific literature and clinical experience.

Program Planners

Ned H. Kalin, M.D. (Editor-in-Chief, AJP); Carolyn Rodriguez, M.D., Ph.D. (Deputy Editor, AJP); Michael D. Roy (Editorial Director, AJP); Michael A. Pogachar (Online Content Manager, Journals). Dr. Kalin has served as a consultant to the Board of Scientific Advisors, the Pritzker Neuropsychiatric Disorders Research Consortium, and the Skyland Trail Advisory Board and as Councilor, Society of Biological Psychiatry. Dr. Rodriguez has served as a consultant to Allergan, Blackthorn, Epiodyne, and Rugen. Mr. Roy and Mr. Pogachar report no financial relationships with commercial interests.

Hardware/Software Requirements

This internet-based CME activity is best experienced using Internet Explorer 8+, Mozilla Firefox 3+, Safari 4+. This Web site requires that JavaScript and session cookies be enabled. Certain activities may require additional software to view multimedia, presentation, or printable versions of the content. These activities will be marked as such and will provide links to the required software. That software may be: Adobe Flash, Adobe Acrobat, Microsoft PowerPoint, and Windows Media Player.


Optimal System Configuration:

  • Flash Player: Adobe Flash Player 10.1+ 
  • Browser: Firefox 3+, Internet Explorer 8.0+, Safari 4.0+, or Google Chrome 7.0+ 
  • Operating System: Windows XP+ or Mac OS X 10.4+ 
  • Internet Connection: 1 Mbps or higher
  • Screen Resolution: 1024 x 768 pixels.

Minimum Requirements:

  • Windows PC:500-MHz Pentium II; Windows XP or higher; 128 MB RAM; Video Card at least 64MB of video memory; Sound Card at least 16-bit; Macromedia Flash Player 10 or higher, audio playback with speakers for programs with video content; Firefox 1.1+, Internet Explorer 7.0+, Safari 1.0+, Google Chrome, or Opera
  • Macintosh: Mac OS X 10.3 or higher with latest updates installed; 1.83MHz Intel Core Duo or faster; RAM: 128MB or more; Video Card: at least 64MB of video memory; Sound Card: at least 16-bit

For assistance: Contact for questions about this course  |  Contact for technical assistance