Objective: Imaging studies of major depressive disorder have reported structural and functional abnormalities in a variety of spatially diverse brain regions. Quantitative meta-analyses of this literature, however, have failed to find statistically significant between-study spatial convergence, other than transdiagnostic-only effects. In the present study, the authors applied a novel multimodal meta-analytic approach to test the hypothesis that major depression exhibits spatially convergent structural and functional brain abnormalities.
Methods: This coordinate-based meta-analysis included voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies and resting-state voxel-based pathophysiology (VBP) studies of blood flow, glucose metabolism, regional homogeneity, and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and fractional ALFF (fALFF). Input data were grouped into three primary meta-analytic classes: gray matter atrophy, increased function, and decreased function in patients with major depression relative to healthy control subjects. In secondary meta-analyses, the data were grouped across primary categories, and in tertiary analyses, by medication status and absence of psychiatric comorbidity. Activation likelihood estimation was used for all analyses.
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The participant will compare convergent neuroimaging findings in major depression at the meta-analytic level.
This program is designed for all psychiatrists in clinical practice, residents in Graduate Medical Education programs, medical students interested in psychiatry, and other physicians who wish to advance their current knowledge of clinical medicine.
Estimated Time to Complete
Duration: 1 hour
Begin Date: May 1, 2020
End Date: April 30, 2022
How to Earn Credit
In order to earn CME credit, subscribers should read through the material presented in the article. After reading the article, complete the quiz and submit your evaluation and study hours (up to 1 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™). A score of 60% or higher is required to receive credit.
The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
The APA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.
Faculty and Planner Disclosures
Title: Multimodal Abnormalities of Brain Structure and Function in Major Depressive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis of Neuroimaging Studies
Authors: Jodie P. Gray, M.S., Veronika I. Müller, Ph.D., Simon B. Eickhoff, M.D., Peter T. Fox, M.D.
Affiliations: Research Imaging Institute, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (J.P.G., P.T.F.); Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Brain and Behavior (INM-7), Research Center Jüelich, Germany (V.I.M., S.B.E.); Institute of Systems Neuroscience, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Germany (V.I.M., S.B.E.); and South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (P.T.F.).
Disclosures: Ms. Gray has received research-training support from a grant through the U.S. Department of Defense and has received speaking honoraria from the Mind Science Foundation. Dr. Eickhoff has received research support from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, the European Commission, the Helmholtz Association, and NIH. Dr. Fox has received research support from the Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas, NIH, the Mathers Foundation, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. Dr. Müller reports no financial relationships with commercial interests.
Discussion of unapproved or investigational use of products*: No.
*APA policy requires disclosure by CME authors of unapproved or investigational use of products discussed in CME programs. Off-label use of medications by individual physicians is permitted and common. Decisions about off-label use can be guided by scientific literature and clinical experience.
Ned H. Kalin, M.D. (Editor-in-Chief, AJP); Carolyn Rodriguez, M.D., Ph.D. (Deputy Editor, AJP); Michael D. Roy (Editorial Director, AJP); Michael A. Pogachar (Online Content Manager, Journals). Dr. Kalin has served as a consultant to the Board of Scientific Advisors, the Pritzker Neuropsychiatric Disorders Research Consortium, and the Skyland Trail Advisory Board and as Councilor, Society of Biological Psychiatry. Dr. Rodriguez has served as a consultant to Allergan, Blackthorn, Epiodyne, and Rugen. Mr. Roy and Mr. Pogachar report no financial relationships with commercial interests.
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