Objective: At first hospitalization, a long duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) predicts illness severity and worse treatment outcomes. The mechanism of this association, however, remains unclear. It has been hypothesized that lengthy untreated psychosis is toxic or that it reflects a more severe form of schizophrenia. Alternatively, the association may be an artifact of lead-time bias. These hypotheses are tested in a longitudinal study of schizophrenia with 2,137 observations spanning from childhood to 20 years after first admission.
Methods: Data were from the Suffolk County Mental Health Project. The cohort included 287 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. DUP was defined as days from first psychotic symptom to first psychiatric hospitalization. Psychosocial function was assessed using the Premorbid Adjustment Scale and the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale. Psychosocial function trajectories were estimated using multilevel spline regression models adjusted for gender, occupational status, race, and antipsychotic medication.
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The participant will assess how lead-time bias may lead to erroneous conclusions about the efficacy of early intervention in schizophrenia.
This program is designed for all psychiatrists in clinical practice, residents in Graduate Medical Education programs, medical students interested in psychiatry, and other physicians who wish to advance their current knowledge of clinical medicine.
Duration: 1 hour
Begin Date: April 1, 2020
End Date: March 31, 2022
In order to earn CME credit, subscribers should read through the material presented in the article. After reading the article, complete the quiz and submit your evaluation and study hours (up to 1 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™). A score of 60% or higher is required to receive credit.
The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
The APA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.
Title: Lead-Time Bias Confounds Association Between Duration of Untreated Psychosis and Illness Course in Schizophrenia
Authors: Katherine G. Jonas, Ph.D., Laura J. Fochtmann, M.D., Greg Perlman, Ph.D., Yuan Tian, M.Sc., John M. Kane, M.D., Evelyn J. Bromet, Ph.D., Roman Kotov, Ph.D.
Affiliations: Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Health (K.G.J., L.J.F., G.P., E.J.B., R.K.) and Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics (Y.T.), Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, N.Y.; Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, Hempstead, New York, and Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, New York (J.M.K.).
Disclosures: Dr. Fochtmann has received salary support from grant MH-094398; she consults with APA on the development of practice guidelines, for which her institution receives salary offset and for which she has received travel funds to attend meetings related to these duties; and she has received payment for grant reviews for NIMH and an honorarium and travel funds for a CME lecture at Thomas Jefferson University. Dr. Kane has been a consultant for Alkermes, Amgen, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, EnVivo Pharmaceuticals (Forum), Forest, Genentech, Intra-Cellular Therapies, Janssen Pharmaceutica, Johnson & Johnson, Lundbeck, Merck, Neurocrine, Newron, Novartis, Otsuka, Pierre Fabre, Reviva, Roche, Sunovion, and Teva; he has received honoraria for lectures from Bristol-Myers Squibb, Genentech, Janssen, Lundbeck, and Otsuka; and he is a shareholder in LB Pharmaceuticals and Vanguard Research Group. The other authors report no financial relationships with commercial interests.
Discussion of unapproved or investigational use of products*: No.
*APA policy requires disclosure by CME authors of unapproved or investigational use of products discussed in CME programs. Off-label use of medications by individual physicians is permitted and common. Decisions about off-label use can be guided by scientific literature and clinical experience.
Ned H. Kalin, M.D. (Editor-in-Chief, AJP); Carolyn Rodriguez, M.D., Ph.D. (Deputy Editor, AJP); Michael D. Roy (Editorial Director, AJP); Michael A. Pogachar (Online Content Manager, Journals). Dr. Kalin has served as a consultant to the Board of Scientific Advisors, the Pritzker Neuropsychiatric Disorders Research Consortium, and the Skyland Trail Advisory Board and as Councilor, Society of Biological Psychiatry. Dr. Rodriguez has served as a consultant to Allergan, Blackthorn, Epiodyne, and Rugen. Mr. Roy and Mr. Pogachar report no financial relationships with commercial interests.
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