Objective: Identifying risk factors for major depression and depressive symptoms in youths could have important implications for prevention efforts. This study examined the association of polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for a broad depression phenotype derived from a large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) in adults, and its interaction with childhood abuse, with clinically relevant depression outcomes in clinical and epidemiological youth cohorts.
Methods: The clinical cohort comprised 279 youths with major depression (mean age=14.76 years [SD=2.00], 68% female) and 187 healthy control subjects (mean age=14.67 years [SD=2.45], 63% female). The first epidemiological cohort included 1,450 youths (mean age=13.99 years [SD=0.92], 63% female). Of those, 694 who were not clinically depressed at baseline underwent follow-ups at 6, 12, and 24 months. The replication epidemiological cohort comprised children assessed at ages 8 (N=184; 49.2% female) and 11 (N=317; 46.7% female) years. All cohorts were genome-wide genotyped and completed measures for major depression, depressive symptoms, and/or childhood abuse. Summary statistics from the largest GWAS to date on depression were used to calculate the depression PRS.
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The participant will describe how genetic risk toward depression derived from adults may be generalized to children and adolescents.
This program is designed for all psychiatrists in clinical practice, residents in Graduate Medical Education programs, medical students interested in psychiatry, and other physicians who wish to advance their current knowledge of clinical medicine.
Duration: 1 hour
Begin Date: August 1, 2019
End Date: July 31, 2021
In order to earn CME credit, subscribers should read through the material presented in the article. After reading the article, complete the quiz and submit your evaluation and study hours (up to 1 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™). A score of 60% or higher is required to receive credit.
The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
The APA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.
Title: Polygenic Risk: Predicting Depression Outcomes in Clinical and Epidemiological Cohorts of Youths
Authors: Thorhildur Halldorsdottir, Ph.D., Charlotte Piechaczek, M.S., Ana Paula Soares de Matos, Ph.D., Darina Czamara, Ph.D., Verena Pehl, Ph.D., Petra Wagenbuechler, Lisa Feldmann, M.S., Peggy Quickenstedt-Reinhardt, Dipl.-Psych., Antje-Kathrin Allgaier, Ph.D., Franz Joseph Freisleder, Ph.D., Ellen Greimel, Ph.D., Tuomas Kvist, M.A., Jari Lahti, Ph.D., Katri Räikkönen, Ph.D., Monika Rex-Haffner, Eiríkur Örn Arnarson, Ph.D., W. Edward Craighead, Ph.D., Gerd Schulte-Körne, Ph.D., Elisabeth B. Binder, M.D., Ph.D.
Affiliations: Department of Translational Research in Psychiatry, Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich (T.H., D.C., M.R.-H., E.B.B.); Center of Public Health Sciences (T.H.) and Landspitali National University Hospital, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik (E.Ö.A.); Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics, and Psychotherapy, University Hospital, Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich (C.P., V.P., P.W., L.F., P.Q.-R., A.-K.A., E.G., G.S.-K.); Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal (A.P.S.d.M.); Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of the German Federal Armed Forces, Neubiberg, Germany (A.-K.A.); KBO Heckscher Hospital, Munich (F.J.F.); Department of Psychology and Logopedics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (T.K., J.L., K.R.); Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences (W.E.C., E.B.B.) and Department of Psychology (W.E.C.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta.
Disclosures: Dr. Halldorsdottir receives funding from European Research Council Consolidator Grant 726413. Drs. Arnarson and Craighead are board members of Hugarheill, an Icelandic company dedicated to the prevention of depression. Dr. Craighead receives book royalties from John Wiley & Sons; he has received research support from the Fuqua Family Foundation, the Mary and John Brock Foundation, and NIH; and he is a consultant to the George West Mental Health Foundation and AIM for Mental Health Foundation. Dr. Binder is a co-inventor on a patent on FKBP5, a novel target for antidepressant therapy (European patent 1687443 B1), and receives research funding from Boehringer Ingelheim for a collaboration on functional investigations of FKBP5. The other authors report no financial relationships with commercial interests.
Discussion of unapproved or investigational use of products*: No.
*APA policy requires disclosure by CME authors of unapproved or investigational use of products discussed in CME programs. Off-label use of medications by individual physicians is permitted and common. Decisions about off-label use can be guided by scientific literature and clinical experience.
Ned H. Kalin, M.D. (Editor-in-Chief, AJP); Carolyn Rodriguez, M.D., Ph.D. (Deputy Editor, AJP); Michael D. Roy (Editorial Director, AJP); Michael A. Pogachar (Online Content Manager, Journals). Dr. Kalin has served as a consultant to the Board of Scientific Advisors, the Pritzker Neuropsychiatric Disorders Research Consortium, and the Skyland Trail Advisory Board and as Councilor, Society of Biological Psychiatry. Dr. Rodriguez has served as a consultant to Allergan, Blackthorn, Epiodyne, and Rugen. Mr. Roy and Mr. Pogachar report no financial relationships with commercial interests.
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