Objective: Interest in candidate gene and candidate gene-by-environment interaction hypotheses regarding major depressive disorder remains strong despite controversy surrounding the validity of previous findings. In response to this controversy, the present investigation empirically identified 18 candidate genes for depression that have been studied 10 or more times and examined evidence for their relevance to depression phenotypes.
Methods: Utilizing data from large population-based and case-control samples (Ns ranging from 62,138 to 443,264 across subsamples), the authors conducted a series of preregistered analyses examining candidate gene polymorphism main effects, polymorphism-by-environment interactions, and gene-level effects across a number of operational definitions of depression (e.g., lifetime diagnosis, current severity, episode recurrence) and environmental moderators (e.g., sexual or physical abuse during childhood, socioeconomic adversity).
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The participant will review how individual, common genetic variants do not have clinically relevant effects on major depressive disorder.
This program is designed for all psychiatrists in clinical practice, residents in Graduate Medical Education programs, medical students interested in psychiatry, and other physicians who wish to advance their current knowledge of clinical medicine.
Duration: 1 hour
Begin Date: May 1, 2019
End Date: April 30, 2021
In order to earn CME credit, subscribers should read through the material presented in the article. After reading the article, complete the quiz and submit your evaluation and study hours (up to 1 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™). A score of 60% or higher is required to receive credit.
The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
The APA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.
Title: No Support for Historical Candidate Gene or Candidate Gene-by-Interaction Hypotheses for Major Depression Across Multiple Large Samples
Authors: Richard Border, M.A., Emma C. Johnson, Ph.D., Luke M. Evans, Ph.D., Andrew Smolen, Ph.D., Noah Berley, Patrick F. Sullivan, M.D., Matthew C. Keller, Ph.D.
Affiliations: Institute for Behavioral Genetics (R.B., E.C.J., L.M.E., A.S., M.C.K.), Department of Psychology and Neuroscience (R.B., N.B., M.C.K.), Department of Applied Mathematics (R.B.), and Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology (L.M.E.), University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder; Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis (E.C.J.); Department of Genetics and Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (P.F.S.); Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (P.F.S.).
Disclosures: Dr. Sullivan has received grant support from Lundbeck, served on advisory committees for Lundbeck and Pfizer, received consulting fees from Element Genomics, and received speaking fees from Roche; his spouse has received grant support from and served on a scientific advisory board for Shire and receives royalties from Pearson and Walker. The other authors report no financial relationships with commercial interests.
Discussion of unapproved or investigational use of products*: No.
*APA policy requires disclosure by CME authors of unapproved or investigational use of products discussed in CME programs. Off-label use of medications by individual physicians is permitted and common. Decisions about off-label use can be guided by scientific literature and clinical experience.
Ned H. Kalin, M.D. (Editor-in-Chief, AJP); Carolyn Rodriguez, M.D., Ph.D. (Deputy Editor, AJP); Michael D. Roy (Editorial Director, AJP); Michael A. Pogachar (Online Content Manager, Journals). Dr. Kalin has served as a consultant to the Board of Scientific Advisors, the Pritzker Neuropsychiatric Disorders Research Consortium, and the Skyland Trail Advisory Board and as Councilor, Society of Biological Psychiatry. Dr. Rodriguez has served as a consultant to Allergan, Blackthorn, Epiodyne, and Rugen. Mr. Roy and Mr. Pogachar report no financial relationships with commercial interests.
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