Objective: The high prevalence of smoking and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia patients is well known, but findings regarding the association between the two are contradictory, and longitudinal studies are lacking. The authors sought to examine the multi-cross-sectional association between smoking behavior and performance in specific cognitive domains and the longitudinal association between change in smoking behavior and change in cognitive functioning in a large prospective study.
Method: The authors conducted a cohort study of patients with nonaffective psychosis (N=1,094), their siblings (N=1,047), and healthy control subjects (N=579). At baseline and at 3- and 6-year follow-ups, smoking behavior was assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and cognitive functioning with a test battery. Multivariate linear mixed-effects regression analyses were conducted to assess associations between smoking and cognitive domains while adjusting for variation in demographic factors, psychopathology, medication, and substance use. Bonferroni correction for multiple testing was applied.
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The participant will reconstruct the relationship between smoking behavior and specific cognitive domains in patients with psychosis relative to siblings and healthy control subjects.
This program is designed for all psychiatrists in clinical practice, residents in Graduate Medical Education programs, medical students interested in psychiatry, and other physicians who wish to advance their current knowledge of clinical medicine.
Duration: 1 hour
Begin Date: November 1, 2018
End Date: October 31, 2020
In order to earn CME credit, subscribers should read through the material presented in the article. After reading the article, complete the quiz and submit your evaluation and study hours (up to 1 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™). A score of 60% or higher is required to receive credit.
The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
The APA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.
Title: Association Between Smoking Behavior and Cognitive Functioning in Patients With Psychosis, Siblings, and Healthy Control Subjects: Results From a Prospective 6-Year Follow-Up Study
Authors: Jentien M. Vermeulen, M.D., Frederike Schirmbeck, Ph.D., Matthijs Blankers, Ph.D., Mirjam van Tricht, Ph.D., Richard Bruggeman, M.D., Ph.D., Wim van den Brink, M.D., Ph.D., Lieuwe de Haan, M.D., Ph.D.
Affiliations: From the Department of Psychiatry and the Amsterdam Institute for Addiction Research, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (J.M.V., F.S., M.B., M.v.T., W.v.d.B., L.d.H.); Arkin Mental Health Care, Amsterdam (M.B., L.d.H.); the Department of Psychiatry, Rob Giel Research Center, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands (R.B.); and the Trimbos Institute, Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction, Utrecht, the Netherlands (M.B.).
Disclosures: Dr. van den Brink has received speaking fees from Eli Lilly, Indivior, Lundbeck, and Pfizer, and he has served as a consultant for BioProject, D&A Pharma, Indivior, Kinnov, Lundbeck, Mundipharma, Novartis, and Opiant Pharmaceuticals. The other authors report no financial relationships with commercial interests.
Discussion of unapproved or investigational use of products*: No.
*APA policy requires disclosure by CME authors of unapproved or investigational use of products discussed in CME programs. Off-label use of medications by individual physicians is permitted and common. Decisions about off-label use can be guided by scientific literature and clinical experience.
Robert Freedman, M.D. (Editor-in-Chief, AJP); Susan K. Schultz, M.D. (Deputy Editor, AJP); Michael D. Roy (Editorial Director, AJP); Michael A. Pogachar (Online Content Manager, Journals).
Dr. Schultz has received research support from the Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study for projects conducted in partnership with Toyama Chemical Company and in partnership with Eli Lilly and Company. Dr. Freedman, Mr. Roy, and Mr. Pogachar report no financial relationships with commercial interests.
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