Objective: This study examined the effects of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, on the development of smoking in male and female adolescents.
Method: Twin difference methods were used to control for shared genetic and environmental confounders in three population-based, same-sex twin samples (N=3,762; 64% monozygotic). One cohort oversampled female adolescents with ADHD beginning in childhood. Regressions of childhood inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms were conducted to predict smoking outcomes by age 17. ADHD effects were divided into those shared between twins in the pair and those nonshared, or different within pairs.
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The participant will recognize that the association of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adolescent smoking may be stronger for females than males.
This program is designed for all psychiatrists in clinical practice, residents in Graduate Medical Education programs, medical students interested in psychiatry, and other physicians who wish to advance their current knowledge of clinical medicine.
Estimated Time to Complete
Duration: 1 hour
Begin Date: January 1, 2018
End Date: December 31, 2019
How to Earn Credit
In order to earn CME credit, subscribers should read through the material presented in the article. After reading the article, complete the quiz and submit your evaluation and study hours (up to 1 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™). A score of 60% or higher is required to receive credit.
Continuing Education Credit
The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
The APA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™. Physicians should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.
Faculty and Planner Disclosures
Title: Increased Risk of Smoking in Female Adolescents Who Had Childhood ADHD
Authors: Irene J. Elkins, Ph.D., Gretchen R.B. Saunders, B.A., Stephen M. Malone, Ph.D., Margaret A. Keyes, Ph.D., Diana R. Samek, Ph.D., Matt McGue, Ph.D., William G. Iacono, Ph.D.
Affiliations: From the Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities (I.J.E., G.R.B.S., S.M.M., M.A.K., M.M.G., W.G.I.); and the Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Auburn University, Auburn, Ala. (D.R.S.).
Disclosures: The authors report no financial relationships with commercial interests.
Discussion of unapproved or investigational use of products*: No.
*APA policy requires disclosure by CME authors of unapproved or investigational use of products discussed in CME programs. Off-label use of medications by individual physicians is permitted and common. Decisions about off-label use can be guided by scientific literature and clinical experience.
Robert Freedman, M.D. (Editor-in-Chief, AJP); Susan K. Schultz, M.D. (Deputy Editor, AJP); Michael D. Roy (Editorial Director, AJP); Michael A. Pogachar (Online Content Manager, Journals).
Dr. Schultz has received research support from the Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study for projects conducted in partnership with Toyama Chemical Company and in partnership with Eli Lilly and Company. Dr. Freedman, Mr. Roy, and Mr. Pogachar report no financial relationships with commercial interests.
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