Objective: The authors sought to ascertain the relationship between moderate and more severe pain and prescription opioid use disorders in the noninstitutionalized U.S. population.
Method: A structural equation model was used to assess prospectively the interdependency of pain and prescription opioid use disorder at waves 1 (2001–2002) and 2 (2004–2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Pain was measured with a 5-point scale of pain-related interference in daily activities and dichotomized as “no pain” (no or little interference) or “pain” (moderate to extreme interference). Prescription opioid use disorder was assessed with a structured interview (the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule–DSM-IV version). Other covariates included age, sex, anxiety or mood disorders, and family history of drug, alcohol, and behavioral problems.
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The participant will categorize cross-sectional and prospective associations between complaints of pain and prescription opioid use disorder among adults in the United States.
This program is designed for all psychiatrists in clinical practice, residents in Graduate Medical Education programs, medical students interested in psychiatry, and other physicians who wish to advance their current knowledge of clinical medicine.
Estimated Time to Complete
Duration: 1 hour
Begin Date: December 1, 2016
End Date: November 30, 2018
How to Earn Credit
In order to earn CME credit, subscribers should read through the material presented in the article. After reading the article, complete the quiz and submit your evaluation and study hours (up to 1 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™). A score of 60% or higher is required to receive credit.
The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
The APA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™. Physicians should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.
Faculty and Planner Disclosures
Title: Pain as a Predictor of Opioid Use Disorder in a Nationally Representative Sample
Authors: Carlos Blanco, M.D., Ph.D., Melanie M. Wall, Ph.D., Mayumi Okuda, M.D., Shuai Wang, Ph.D., Miren Iza, M.D., Mark Olfson, M.D., M.P.H.
Affiliations: From the Division of Epidemiology, Services, and Prevention Research, NIDA, Bethesda, Md. (C.B.); the Department of Psychiatry, New York State Psychiatric Institute and Columbia University, New York (M.M.W., M.Ok., S.W., M.Ol.); and the Department of Psychiatry, Fundación Jiménez-Díaz, Madrid (M.I.).
Disclosures: The authors report no financial relationships with commercial interests.
Discussion of unapproved or investigational use of products*: No.
*APA policy requires disclosure by CME authors of unapproved or investigational use of products discussed in CME programs. Off-label use of medications by individual physicians is permitted and common. Decisions about off-label use can be guided by scientific literature and clinical experience.
Robert Freedman, M.D. (Editor-in-Chief, AJP); Susan K. Schultz, M.D. (Deputy Editor, AJP); Michael D. Roy (Editorial Director, AJP) ; Michael A. Pogachar (Online Content Manager, Journals).
Dr. Schultz has received research support from the Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study for projects conducted in partnership with Toyama Chemical Company and in partnership with Eli Lilly and Company. Dr. Freedman, Mr. Roy, and Mr. Pogachar report no financial relationships with commercial interests.
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