Double Minorities: Exploring Systemic Barriers Against Non-US International Medical Graduates in Academic Psychiatry
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Credit Offered
1.25 CME Credits
1.25 COP Credits

International Medical graduates(IMGs) make up around a quarter of licensed physicians in the country. Up to a third of all psychiatrists in the USA and more than a quarter of psychiatry trainees are IMGs. The vast majority of IMGs is composed of non-US IMGs, with most coming from the global south. Many of the non-US IMGs also fall into the category of double minorities given their immigrant status in addition to racial/ethnic background, gender and sexual orientation. Immigration, in of itself, has been the topic of much debate in the psychiatric/psychoanalytic literature. However, little data exists on the immigration and acculturation of non-US physicians within the medical workforce generally or the psychiatric workforce particularly. At the start of training, non-US IMGs face a dual learning curve, both as immigrants and trainees. Often there is limited support and understanding of their struggles. Non-US IMGs have been shown to face bias and discrimination by patients, peers and supervisors. They are held to a different, tougher standard and come to accept limitations to career advancement as part of the package. During the session, we will summarize the existing literature on the stress faced by international graduates and the struggles of being an IMG of minority background. We will invite the attendees to reflect on case vignettes for challenges faced by such physicians. During the session, we will review the issues faced by specific groups: racial/ethnic minorities, women and those who belong to the LGBTQ community. The session will then highlight the various issues raised by intersectionality, with a focus on barriers to professional success and progression. We will also present models that assist in addressing these concerns. matching in psychiatry declines, meeting their specific needs in academic psychiatry is vital. We hope to have a discussion that aims at identifying ways of assisting IMG in navigating American academia and reaching full career potential. Inviting institutions to optimize the environment for IMG.


Recorded webinar, non-interactive, self-paced distance learning activity.

This presentation was recorded at the American Psychiatric Association Annual Meeting 2022.

Learning Objectives

  • Appreciate the concept of double minorities within the foreign medical graduate cohort.
  • Understand the analytic and practical implications of the immigrant experience, extrapolating it to barriers for advancement
  • Learn about the challenges faced by various FMG minorities in healthcare
  • Appreciate the role of mentorship in the IMG’s journey into integration in the American psychiatric workforce

Target Audience


Estimated Time to Complete

Estimated Duration: 75 minutes
Begin Date: April 1, 2023
End Date: April 1, 2026

How to Earn Credit

Participants who wish to earn AMA PRA Category 1 Credit ™ or a certificate of participation may do so by completing all sections of the course including the evaluation. A multiple choice quiz is provided based on the content. A passing score of 60% must be achieved. Retakes are available for the test. After evaluating the program, course participants will be provided with an opportunity to claim hours of participation and print an official CME certificate (physicians) or certificate of participation (non-physicians) showing the event date and hours earned.

Continuing Education Credit

In support of improving patient care, the American Psychiatric Association is jointly accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME), the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE), and the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC), to provide continuing education for the healthcare team.


The APA designates this enduring activity for a maximum of 1.25 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit ™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

Faculty and Planner Disclosures

The American Psychiatric Association adheres to the ACCME’s Standards for Integrity and Independence in Accredited Continuing Medical Education. Any individuals in a position to control the content of a CME activity — including faculty, planners, reviewers or others — are required to disclose all relevant financial relationships with ineligible entities (commercial interests). All relevant conflicts of interest have been mitigated prior to the commencement of the activity.

Program Presenters

  • Ramotse Saunders, MD, UCSF Medical Center. Reports no financial relationships with commercial interests.
  • Ali Haidar, MD, Mount Sinai Health System. Reports no financial relationships with commercial interests.
  • Muniza Majoka, MD, Yale School of Medicine. Reports no financial relationships with commercial interests.

Program Planners

  • Jacqueline Maus Feldman, M.D., Chairperson, Scientific Program Committee, Reports no financial relationships with commercial interests.
  • Robert O. Cotes, M.D., Vice-Chairperson, Scientific Program Committee, Reports no financial relationships with commercial interests. 
  • Uchenna Okeye, M.D., Vice-Chairperson, Scientific Program Committee, Reports no financial relationships with commercial interests. 

Accessibility for Participants with Disabilities

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