Objective: Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is a major public health problem leading to adverse health outcomes and neurodevelopmental abnormalities among offspring. Its prevalence in the United States and Europe is 12%–25%. This study examined the relationship between prenatal nicotine exposure (cotinine level) in archived maternal sera and schizophrenia in offspring from a national birth cohort.
Method: The authors conducted a population-based nested case-control study of all live births in Finland from 1983 to 1998. Cases of schizophrenia in offspring (N=977) were identified from a national registry and matched 1:1 to controls on date of birth, sex, and residence. Maternal serum cotinine levels were prospectively measured, using quantitative immunoassay, from early- to mid-gestation serum specimens archived in a national biobank.
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The participant will describe the association between a maternal smoking biomarker and schizophrenia.
This program is designed for all psychiatrists in clinical practice, residents in Graduate Medical Education programs, medical students interested in psychiatry, and other physicians who wish to advance their current knowledge of clinical medicine.
Duration: 1 hour
Begin Date: August 1, 2016
End Date: July 31, 2018
In order to earn CME credit, subscribers should read through the material presented in the article. After reading the article, complete the quiz and submit your evaluation and study hours (up to 1 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™). A score of 60% or higher is required to receive credit.
The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
The APA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.
Title: Prenatal Nicotine Exposure and Risk of Schizophrenia Among Offspring in a National Birth Cohort
Authors: Solja Niemelä, M.D., Ph.D., Andre Sourander, M.D., Ph.D., Heljä-Marja Surcel, Ph.D., Susanna Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Ph.Lic., Ian W. McKeague, Ph.D., Keely Cheslack-Postava, Ph.D., Alan S. Brown, M.D., M.P.H.
Affiliations: From the Research Unit of Clinical Neuroscience, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, and the Department of Psychiatry, Lapland Hospital District, Rovaniemi, Finland (S.N.); the Department of Child Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Turku, and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland (A.S., S.H.-Y.-S.); the National Institute for Health and Welfare, Oulu, Finland (H.-M.S.); the Department of Psychiatry, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, and New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York (A.S., K.C.-P., A.S.B.); and the Departments of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York (I.W.M., A.S.B.).
Disclosures: Dr. Niemelä has received speakers’ bureau honoraria from Janssen, Lilly, and Lundbeck; has received travel funds from Janssen and Lundbeck; and has served on advisory panels for Janssen and Lundbeck. The other authors report no financial relationships with commercial interests.
Discussion of unapproved or investigational use of products*: No.
*APA policy requires disclosure by CME authors of unapproved or investigational use of products discussed in CME programs. Off-label use of medications by individual physicians is permitted and common. Decisions about off-label use can be guided by scientific literature and clinical experience.
Robert Freedman, M.D. (Editor-in-Chief, AJP); Susan K. Schultz, M.D. (Deputy Editor, AJP); Michael D. Roy (Editorial Director, AJP) ; Michael A. Pogachar (Online Content Manager, Journals).
Dr. Schultz has received research support from the Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study for projects conducted in partnership with Toyama Chemical Company and in partnership with Eli Lilly and Company. Dr. Freedman, Mr. Roy, and Mr. Pogachar report no financial relationships with commercial interests.
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