Objective: In this study, the authors tested the hypothesis that poverty experienced in early childhood, as measured by income-to-needs ratio, has an impact on functional brain connectivity at school age, which in turn mediates influences on child negative mood/depression.
Method: Participants were from a prospective longitudinal study of emotion development. Preschoolers 3–5 years of age were originally ascertained from primary care and day care sites in the St. Louis area and then underwent annual behavioral assessments for up to 12 years. Healthy preschoolers and those with a history of depression symptoms underwent neuroimaging at school age. Using functional MRI, the authors examined whole brain resting-state functional connectivity with the left and right hippocampus and amygdala.
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The participant will recognize relationships between aspects of brain connectivity, preschool poverty, and school-age depression.
This program is designed for all psychiatrists in clinical practice, residents in Graduate Medical Education programs, medical students interested in psychiatry, and other physicians who wish to advance their current knowledge of clinical medicine.
Estimated Time to Complete
Duration: 1 hour
Begin Date: June 1, 2016
End Date: May 31, 2018
How to Earn Credit
In order to earn CME credit, subscribers should read through the material presented in the article. After reading the article, complete the course online at education.psychiatry.org and submit your evaluation and study hours (up to 1 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™).
The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
The APA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™. Physicians should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.
Faculty and Planner Disclosures
Title: Effect of Hippocampal and Amygdala Connectivity on the Relationship Between Preschool Poverty and School-Age Depression
Authors: Deanna Barch, Ph.D., David Pagliaccio, Ph.D., Andy Belden, Ph.D., Michael P. Harms, Ph.D., Michael Gaffrey, Chad M. Sylvester, M.D., Ph.D., Rebecca Tillman, M.S., Joan Luby, M.D.
Affiliations: From the Department of Psychiatry; the Department of Radiology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology; the Department of Psychology; and the Program in Neuroscience, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Mo. (D.B., D.P., A.B., M.P.H., M.G., C.M.S., R.T., J.L.).
Disclosures: Dr. Barch has served as a consultant for Amgen, Pfizer, Takeda, and Roche and has a contract to analyze imaging data for Pfizer. Dr. Luby has received royalties from Guilford Press. The other authors report no financial relationships with commercial interests.
Discussion of unapproved or investigational use of products*: No.
*APA policy requires disclosure by CME authors of unapproved or investigational use of products discussed in CME programs. Off-label use of medications by individual physicians is permitted and common. Decisions about off-label use can be guided by scientific literature and clinical experience.
Robert Freedman, M.D. (Editor-in-Chief, AJP); Susan K. Schultz, M.D. (Deputy Editor, AJP); Michael D. Roy (Editorial Director, AJP) ; Michael A. Pogachar (Online Content Manager, Journals).
Dr. Schultz has received research support from the Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study for projects conducted in partnership with Toyama Chemical Company and in partnership with Eli Lilly and Company. Dr. Freedman, Mr. Roy, and Mr. Pogachar report no financial relationships with commercial interests.
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